Friday, 6 January 2017

Reflections on Genre Theory

I will be discussing my A2 production using genre theories from five different theorists'.  


Daniel Chandler 
- Chandler's definition of a genre is creating a systematic list to reduce the amount of available information. He also says that genre is an organisation method to categorise types of music. 
- Chandler also says that conventional definitions of genre are based on the idea that they constitute specific conventions of content. For example themes, settings, styles and/or structures. 
- Without genre it would be hard to find any music that people like as there are so many different styles of music and also applies to films. 

For my A2 production, I chose the sub-genre of dance/electronic music, EDM, which stands for Electronic Dance Music. The genre Dance Music has become evolved over the years and today is mostly known as electronic music of electronic dance music. Thus creating a sub-genre of music. [Source] [Source]






Andrew Goodwin 
Goodwin believes that genre helps to deconstruct music videos into a form in which directors can use as a bases of making a music video.
- He believes that there are distinct conventions for each genre of music. 
- He has made five rules which are built to make up a music video. [My post

Rule 1 - Genre Characteristics 
An example of this would be a live performance from a rock band. [My post

A general example of this would be if it was a pop music video, the singer would e lip-syncing and maybe have a dance routine. As for my own production, I had DJ's with instruments closely used in a EDM track. 




I had my solo artist lip-syncing to the track and performing a dance routine to the music.



Rule 2 - Relationship between the lyrics and visuals or relationship between the music and visuals. 
For the relations between lyrics and visuals, that would be when the artist/band are singing and the visuals match or implies what is being said through visual aid. 

For the relations between the music and visuals, that is for example if a song is fast-paced like a dance track then the editing of the visuals might illustrate that to an audience which is what I applied to my music video. I had the singer performing a dance routine which during the editing process I sped up or made short cuts. Here is a short video I made on editing:

Rule 3 - Voyeurism/Objectification of the female body 
- Voyeurism is when there are body parts of the artist shown that are provocative.  
Objectification of the female body is when there are women in the video that wear tight clothing, revealing clothing and focusing on the female body as an object. 

An example of this would be visible in a Britney Spears music video or a Katy Perry video where they are always the focus. They wear tight clothing or very revealing outfits and thus making their body an object. 
Many of these videos are aimed at young teens, which is portraying a false image of how a female body should look like.



For my music video I had two females, one playing a DJ which did not wear anything revealing and a female as the ex-girlfriend who also did not wear anything tight or showy. 
As a female director, I did not want to apply the male gaze theory by Laura Mulvey as I agree with her argument. Her argument is that the female bodies are sexualised in music videos for a male audience. I decided to focus on the performer and the music rather than the female casts. 

As for the outfit, her hair was kept down and she wore a jacket and a top. The top only revealing the neck, the jeans were skinny jeans and turned up at the bottom to show her ankles. And some sneakers. 





Rule 4 - Intertextuality 
- Intertextuality is when there is a media text referenced within another form of media. An example of this is when a music video references a movie or another song within their music video. 

An example of this would be Jennifer Lopez's music video 'Ain't your mama', the setting is very 1950's intertextualised video with lots of costumes referencing that era. 

In my music video I intertextualised the artist Justin Bieber with the costume that my performer wore. 


As these photos show, I tried to dress my singer similar to JB. I had the long t-shirt and the coat and some jeans that are baggy and a pair of sneakers. 


I also tried to intertextualise the poses that JB does and the way he dances when performing live. I also used several dance moves from previous JB performances.  







Rule 5 - Star Image 
- Star image is when the protagonist of the music video is the center of attention and all the focus is on them. The camera shots would be mostly close ups and mid shots of the 'star'. The star is presented with their own uniqueness and quality using costumesmake up and their general appearance. This can help to further advertise the music video and the artists public reputation. 

An example of this would be Lady Gaga who has a huge fan base and in her videos she is the focus, all shots are close-ups to mid-shots. 
via GIPHY 

In my music video the star image was my performer/singer who had lots of close-ups of him lip-syncing and mid to long shots of him dancing. 


Here I used a extreme close up of my performer lip-syncing. 
The image beside it is of a close up of the singer's torso. 

 The other two images are mid shots of the singer performing. As we can see the use of these shots coney the emotions from the singer. 




Jason Mittell 
- Jason Mittell agues that genres are cultural categories, and that industries use genre to sell products to audiences. Media producers use familiar codes and conventions that often make cultural references to their audience's knowledge of society. 

This is an example from Amazon.co.uk which has a list of different genres. 

The second example on the right is from Soundcloud.com and the long list of genres on their website. 






- There are certain things an audience would buy that is conventional to the genre of music they like. 
For example if an audience liked pop music they would buy and wear bright clothing and neon related march. 
If the audience liked rock music they would buy products that are related to the colour black.  

John Fiske
- John Fiske argues that “genre attempts to structure some order into the wide range of texts and meanings that circulate in our culture for the convenience of both producers and audiences". [Source
- John Fiske argues that genres help to fill the audiences expectations. 
- For example, if there is a DJ setting with a live performance an audience would expect to have flashing lights and the performers interacting with the fans. 
In my music video, I have DJ's performing which many audience viewers would expect to see them playing their 'instrument' and dancing around. I have a singer which the audience would expect to be performing and dancing. 

David Gauntlett 
- David Gauntlett argues that an audience should be active rather than passive and with web2.0 there is more outlet for the bands/singers to interact with their fans. 
- An example of this would be Lady Gaga who's fan base is huge has a website that is dedicated to all her 'little monster' fans. 

For my music video, I created a website for my DJ's and I had a fan lyric video made which asked fans to submit photos of themselves holding signs of the lyrics to the song I chose. 
Here are pictures of my website: 




Here are the fan lyric submissions which let the fans feels closer to these artists'. 

1 comment:

  1. I'll give detailed feedback later, but ... " I did not apply the male gaze theory by Laura Mulvey" ARGH!!! We've been over this specific point many times!

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