- Universal Music Group
- Sony Muisc Entertainment
- Warner Music Group
Universal Music Group
- Interscope Records
- Republic Records
- Island Records
- Def Jam Recordings
Sony Music Entertainment
- RCA records
- Columbia Records
- Epic Records
Warner Music Group
- Atlantic Records
- UMG - 29.85%
- SME - 29.29%
- WMG - 19.13%
- UMG - $1.552 billion
- SME - $4.89 billion
- WMG - $2.87 billion
- Universal owns another label EMI but Sony also own parts of the label
- Consolidation - going from several to fewer businesses
- Concentration to ownership - no competition - prices will go up
- Pluralism - a multiplicity of views
- Murdoch - owns many newspapers and TV channels in Britain - including 'Sky' and 'The Times'
- Chomsky - 5 Filters of propaganda - media act on the powerful and filter through certain things
- Censorship - linked to advertising
- HBO - show a lot of nudity and violence and gore/ explicit scenes
- No one would pay to advertise next to HBO - e.g Coca Cola
- Madonna - 'Like a prayer' - big sponsorship deal with 'Pepsi' - in the video there's a Jesus figure which is black and the video is seen as controversial, there are connotations of sexual gratification - storm kicked up and 'Pepsi' dropped their sponsorship, losing millions of dollars. "Pepsi caved in to the protests, and cancelled the advertising campaign. According to Taraborrelli, Pepsi was so eager to extricate themselves from the venture that they even allowed Madonna to keep the five million dollars she had been advanced". [Wiki]
- 5 Filters - takes out and removes radical ideas in the media
- RedBull - quite an edgy company - would be advertised beside something explicit
[Source]- Benetton - Clothing brand - pushed the boundaries, socially responsible
- Ice-T - released a song 'Freedom of Speech' with a huge campaign, the parent company gets pushed and they drop the label of their subsidiary.
- Heavy metal, rap - parental advisory/explicit - from campaign by Senator's wives starting a club called 'PMRC'
- Backwards masking - subliminal messages on CD's that are played in reverse.
- Media Regulation - Video nasties - exploration of indie films - VHS - film in the home - 1980's - shops filed with VHS of horror indie films. - later banned by Thatcher
- EMI - sex pistols made a song about the EMI label and the label dumped the sex pistols. Too controversial.
- When Thatcher died - people had street celebrations and the Radio's refused to play the song 'Ding Dong The Witch Is Dead'.
- 'God save the Queen' - sex pistols - banned - they were working class - that's why they were so controversial.
- Filtering - Rodney Stuart got the No.1 on the charts instead of The sex pistols who got No.2.
- 2 Live Crew - 'Banned in the USA' song also very controversial and people got very offended by the song and the message within it.
- The Beggars Group - Indie conglomerate - biggest indie group in the world - very stable company.
- 'Cop Killers' were a band that have gone extinct in the music world due to their music and their beliefs.
- Web 2.0 - digitalisation - disruption - when distribution modes are changed
- ITunes, Spotify - streaming - sales of digital albums have gone down
- - John McMura - little guy becomes big guy but always end up with concentration of cencorship.
- The Long Tail Theory - opposite to the theorist Elberse - giants survive by putting the prices up
- focus on marketing and the distribution of music online